How much religious knowledge is obligatory (fard) to attain upon every muslim?
All those religious knowledge which is obligatory on a person, its seeking is compulsion and here it refers to the basic religious knowledge which one need to attain (as a Muslim). The first and foremost it is obligatory (Fard) to attain the knowledge of the basic tenets (Aqidaah) of our faith, by having faith on which person becomes Muslim Sahi ulaqidaah Sunni or by denying or apposing without reasons person becomes kafir or bid’at. For instance, Knowledge of the attributes of Almighty Allah , and Prophets and Messengers of Allah, Angles (Mala’aaikah), Genies (jinnat) paradise (jannat) and hell (jahannum), grave, day of judgments, knowledge of destiny (takdeer) etc.
Thereafter it is essential to learn the fundamentals of Salah (i.e. pre- conditions, requirements and acts that invalidate it). Further, before the approach of the month of Ramaḍān, when observing fast becomes Farḍ, it is obligatory (upon Muslims) to know the basic rulings regarding fasting. Likewise, whoever is obligated (under Islamic Law) to pay Zakah, is required to learn the essentials of Zakah as well.
When Hajj becomes obligatory upon someone, he has to learn the fundamentals of Hajj; for someone who desires to get married, must learn about the matters of marriage (Nikāḥ); and for a businessman it is obligatory to be aware of the issues and conditions of legal validity concerning his trade.
Likewise, it is obligatory (Farḍ) for every Muslim to know what Ḥalal is and what Ḥaram is. Then is also obligatory to know the methods of attaining the purity of a heart, for example, how to attain humility, sincerity and submission to Allah’s Will (Tawakkul); and to learn about the spiritual diseases of the heart such as arrogance, ostentation, malice etc. Furthermore, it is a personal obligation upon every Muslim to learn how to cleanse their heart from such ailments. It is also obligatory to learn about the enormities or actions and cause of lying, backbiting, tale-bearing and laying false allegations etc., so that one may protect himself from them.The person who leave or missed the salaah do major sin and is fasik and fajir likewise the one who do ostentation, backbiting,malice etc also do major sin.
It is present in book Durry Mokhtar: اعلم أن تعلم العلم یکون فرض عین، وہو بقدر ما یحتاج لدینہ۔جان لیجئے ‘Seeking knowledge is an obligation (Farḍ) upon every Muslim’ Here it refers to the basic religious knowledge which one needs to attain (as a Muslim). (Al Durry Muhtar,Mukadmah,page 44,Al Maktabatul Shamla) In book Raddul Mohtar: فرض علی کل مکلف ومکلفۃ بعد علم الدین والہدایۃ تعلم علم الوضوء والغسل والصلاۃ والصوم، وعلم الزکاۃ لمن نصاب، والحج لمن وجب علیہ، والبیوع علی التجار لیحترزوا عن الشبہات والمکروہات فی سائر المعاملات.وکذا أہل الحرف، وکل من اشتغل بشء یفرض علیہ علمہ وحکمہ ولیمتنع عن الحرام فیہ ۔ After attaining the basic religious knowledge and guidance .
It is personally obligatory (Farḍ-e-Ayn) for every sane and adult, male and female Muslims to learn the rules of ablution (Wuzu) bathing (Ghusl) salaah (namaz) learn and likewise whoever is obligated (under Islamic Law) to pay Zakah, is required to learn the essentials of Zakah as well and when Hajj becomes obligatory upon some one he has to learn the fundamental of Hajj and for a businessman it is obligatory to be aware of the issues and conditions of legal validity concerning his trade; for an employee it is essential to seek the knowledge about employment issues; and for an employer it is critical to obtain knowledge about the issues of hiring and providing employment. ).
It is personally obligatory (Farḍ-e-Ayn) for every Muslims to learn the rulings which are related to their own lives and conditions. These commands are therefore to prevent person in these matters and conditions from Haram. (Raddul Mohtar,Mukadmah,Page 44,Almaktaba Al Shamlah) In book Raddul Mohtaar: فی تبیین المحارم: لا شک فی فرضیۃ علم الفرائض الخمس وعلم الاخلاص، لان صحۃ العمل موقوفہ علیہ، وعلم الحلال والحرام وعلم الریاء ، لان العابد محروم من ثواب عملہ بالریاء وعلم الحسد والعجب إذ ہما یأکلان العمل کما تأکل النار الحطب، وعلم البیع والشراء والنکاح والطلاق لمن أراد الدخول فی ہذہ الاشیاء ،وعلم الالفاظ المحرمۃ أو المکفرۃ۔یعنی تبیین المحارم There is no doubt that to know the obligation of obligatory five salaah and to learn the method of attaining humility is mandatory since the health of every deed depends upon these ,similarly knowledge of Haram and Halal and ostentation is also obligatory. Because abid (who prays) due to his ostentation get deprive of the reward of his good deeds. To attain the knowledge of malice(hasad)and selfishness is also obligatory because these two eat the human deed like as the fire eat the wood.One who wants to do trade,businesss, marriage, divorce etc it is obligatory on him to attain the knowledge relates to these matter.Similarly to attain the knowledge of Haram and Kufriya sentence is obligatory. (Raddul Mohtar,Mukadmah,Page 44,Almaktaba Al Shamlah) Allah Knows best.
By Mufti Haider Ali Qadri Sahab